Final test of ICT

THE USE OF COMPUTER TO ENHANCE THE LEARNING OF SPEAKING SKILL

I. Introduction


As we know when a teacher asks his or her students to speak in English, most of them can not do it directly because they feel so worried for their pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. This happens and continues in their daily life. They always feel so shy and lack of self- confidence to speak in English not only in the teaching-learning process but also when they meet somebody from country abroad who speaks in English, such as American, Australian or British. That is why we as English teacher should design any activities which facilitate them to dare in speaking not only in teaching-learning process but also in real- situation.
One of the crucial issues to facilitate students to dare in speaking English is the use of computer equipped with multimedia software packages. It serves the students to listen, record and playback for accuracy and pronunciation practices. It also helps them to increase their self-confidence to speak to people in real-situation after they do regular practice. In application, a teacher is not busy to check the students because the task will be done by computer including giving the responses either appraisal or suggestion.
In this essay, the writer would like to show the readers that the use of computer can enhance the students’ speaking skill. To support the argument, the writer presents review of related literature for example the role of computer in teaching and what kinds of aspect in speaking skill that computer serves. The writer also presents analysis showing the strengths and the weaknesses of using computer in teaching speaking skills.

II. Objective


There are two objectives of this essay:
1. To show the teachers that computer can facilitate the students to learn English, especially in speaking skill.
2. To encourage the teachers to use computer to enhance the students’ speaking skills.

III. Review of Related Literature


Hartoyo (2006) writes that computer has two roles in learning:
1. Computer as a medium for facilitating people in learning, such as learning language
2. Computer as a more interactive aid compared with other media

It is helpful to think of the computer as having the following main roles in the language classroom:
• teacher – the computer teaches students new language
• tester – the computer tests students on language already learned
• tool – the computer assists students to do certain tasks
• data source – the computer provides students with the information they need to perform a particular task (http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/teach.htm)
It is clear from the opinions above that computer can be used as media in learning language because it has more complete features than other media, such as, tape recorder, VCD and DVD. In addition, it also serves students several things. First, it can let the students listen to dialogues or watch video clips. They can click on pictures to call up the names of the objects they see. They can speak into the microphone and immediately hear a recording of what they have said. The program can keep a record of their progress, e.g. the vocabulary learned, and offer remedial help if necessary. Second, it can serve the students drill and practice; it will tirelessly present them with questions and announce if the answer is right or wrong. Third, it can be used as a writing tool because it has played a significant part in the introduction of the writing process, by allowing students easily to produce multiple drafts of the same piece of work. Students with messy handwriting can now do a piece of work to be proud of, and those with poor spelling skills can, after sufficient training in using the spell check, produce a piece of writing largely free of spelling mistakes. Forth, it can serve encyclopaedias, that present information in a more compact, reliable and easily accessible form.
Having known many good sides of computer in language learning, it is possible for the teachers to use computer for developing the students’ speaking skills. As Pennington (1989) writes that computers can provide instruction in speaking and listening in two general ways: (1) They can create environments which facilitate interaction, and (2) They can provide training in production and perception of speech. Similarly, Kenning (1984) claims that computer can be utilized to enhance language learning, and can also be used to generate examples to illustrate certain operations, or to stimulate conversation. In fact, application of computer in teaching and learning speaking is mainly decided by the nature of speaking itself. Looking at the points of view from Pennington and Kenning, we can understand that using of computer to emphasize the development of speaking skill can be very helpful to improve the listening skills because when the teacher asks the students to deal with the computer which is equipped with multimedia software packages. According to Pennington (1995), spoken language competence covers two aspects, i.e. the mechanical aspect and the meaningful aspect, which are summarised as follows:
1. Mechanical aspect is learning to discriminate and produce sounds of a language and tie these together prosodically in fluent strings of sounds comprising syllables, words, phrases and longer utterances or articulation and decoding of individual sounds (phonemes)
2. Meaningful aspect is learning to build as well as to decompose grammatically coherent utterances and to tie these to communicative functions according to rules of pragmatic appropriateness in a given speech community.
In teaching speaking skills by using computer, there are some alternative programs of CALL that teachers can use, such as CMC (computer mediated communication) and SLIM (Multimedia Interactive Linguistic Software).
According to Herring (1996) CMC can be defined as “communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers”. As Harasim (1990); Berge and Collins (1995) claim that CMC has been proved by many researchers to have a critical impact on higher education and positive changes in face-to-face classroom interactions. It also supported by Collison, Elbaum et al. (2000) that CMC has become a relatively easy-to-adopt tool for educators around the world. CMC is strongly recommended to be used in improving students’ pronunciation and practicing discussion and argument.
SLIM (Multimedia Interactive Linguistic Software) developed at the University of Venice, in which the Prosodic Module has been created in order to deal with the problem of improving a student’s performance both in the perception and production of prosodic aspects of spoken language activities, tackling phonetic and prosodic problems at the word and segmental level, and with prosodic aspects at phonological phrase and utterance supra segmental level.
(http://www.edfac.unimelb.edu.au/research/resources/student_res/postscriptfiles/vol3/vol3_1_gong1.pdf)

As Delmonte (2000) says that SLIM is able to detect significant deviation from a master’s word/phrase/utterance production and offers visual aids and a written diagnosis of the problem as well as indications on how to overcome and correct the error.
In using of the compute related to CALL program such as CMC or SLIM makes the students learn pronunciation. According to Pennington (1995), since speech analysis technology is highly motivating, even learners who had formerly shown no inclination to work on their pronunciation will often willingly spend time working alone or with a trainer using this computer-based form of input and practice. It can be understood that using the computer in learning pronunciation can offer a private environment without fear of the number of repetitions needed for full comprehension or accuracy of production. Furthermore, the students’ worry and embarrassment about phonetic inaccuracies are greatly reduced. In addition, they can always adjust their own pace of learning. Besides learning pronunciation, the students can learn to practise some dialogues where the students can talk to the computer. For example, one program named Conversations offers 14 dialogues in which the students can participate. This program features two speakers, and the students can take the part of either. Such software always covers practical language functions and various topics.
It also allows learners to choose a situation, study the dialogue, record themselves and then play the recording back and compare it to the model. The software with speech recognition and analysis functions can even give learners visual feedback.

IV. Analysis


In this section, the writer would like to present an analysis about the strengths and the weaknesses of using computer in teaching speaking skills. As we know that computer environment has great advantages for the students to develop speaking skills which provides safe, motivating and interactive environment, a great variety of resources, spontaneous feedback, exposure to real interaction, addresses to different need, and lets controllability over the rate of learning. Though many advantages of using computer in teaching-learning speaking skills can be gained, we really need to understand the strengths and the weaknesses.
The strengths of using computer to enhance speaking skills are:
1. As Kataoka (2000) says that many learners feel more confident when they practise speaking using computers than in face-to-face settings. It is supported by Pennington (1996) who has argued, computer training systems for pronunciation seem to be one of the few environments where learners’ consciousness of their own spoken language errors does not interfere with their learning. From both opinions above, we can draw conclusion that learning speaking skills by using computer can improve the students’ self-confidence to pronounce or talk to the computer as if they make a dialogue and reduce their anxiety in making errors. In addition, they can realize their own mistakes from the feedback the computer gives without feeling ashamed or annoyed like they get correctness from their teacher or their friends.
2. The material that can be displayed in the computer always be more authentic and interesting because it provides not only texts like a book but also graphics, sound files, digitised audio and video clips, etc.
3. It offers the controllability of materials and self-teaching system. In the controllability of materials, the computer allows learners to proceed learning at their own pace and teachers to arrange their teaching to meet different needs. The computer which serves as a self-teaching system can help the adjustment the level of the task to fit the students’ ability level. Here, the teachers can address different learning styles of their students through multimedia with pictures, sound, movies and texts offering different ways to deal with the same materials to suit various learning styles, which help to personalise individual student’s learning. In addition, in a normal teaching situation, it is impossible for teachers or native speakers to repeat a phrase without variation in its utterance or repeat as much as the students want them to. Therefore the controllability of the computer environment makes teaching and learning more flexible and personalized.
4. The materials can offer spontaneous feedback that can be used both for assessment or self-assessment purposes.
5. It is possible to have networked computer which enhances interaction between users and the target language content, by putting learners in touch with other learners or native speakers of the language, and a multitude of other resources free from the restriction of time and distance.
The weaknesses of using computer to enhance the students’ speaking skills are:
1. The computer can not serve a natural language or real verbal interaction unlike the teachers do with the students in teaching-learning process.
2. The computer only creates “virtual” environment unlike the “real” one where the teacher and the students can make direct contact. In other words, it can not replace actual human-to-human contact in learning a language.
3. It has possibility to set the teachers’ mind that they can learn speaking skills, such as how to pronounce words or sentences and how to have a dialogue because of the computer. It can occur since the teacher has less direct involvement when the students do practice or have a test with the computer.

V. Summary and recommendation


CMC or SLIM supporting computer can be a promising medium for the teaching and learning of speaking skills. The programs can help the teachers to assist or facilitate their students to practise without being interfered, ashamed or discouraged; in the other words, the students feel more confident and realize their strengths and weaknesses when the computer gives the feedback.
Considering the numbers of strengths more than the numbers of weaknesses in using computer to enhance the students’ speaking skills, it is better for every teacher to change the way he or she teaches. It means today is the time for the teacher to make a use of computer with multimedia software packages, such as CMC or SLIM in facilitating his or her students to learn speaking skills in challenging way.

References:
1. Hartoyo. 2005. Individual Differences: in Computer- Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Semarang. UPT UNNES Press
2. _____, The employment of CALL in teaching second/foreign language speaking skill. http://www.edfac.unimelb.edu.au
3. _____, Teaching Speaking Skills at a Vietnamese University and Recommendations for Using CMC. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com
4. _______, Using computers in language teaching. http://esl.fis.edu.
5. _______.2004. Speaking in the CALL Environment. http://www.paccall.org
6. _______. Advantages and disadvantages of using computer network technology in language teaching. http://js.vnu.edu.vn
7. _______.Teaching speaking, listening and writing.http://www.ibe.unesco.org
8. _______.Using Web Resources in a Public Speaking Class. http://exchanges.state.gov
9. ________.Information and Communication Technologies
http://wwwfp.education.tas.gov.au

the children I love muuuaaaachhhh

this is my handsomenephew, mas AdhanThis is my cute beautiful niece, Shasathis is my sweety niece, neng fira

inspire or not !

Why I choose to be a teacher

Talking about education is same as talking about teacher. In my opinion, a teacher is a great person who has an important role in developing knowledge and improving competence or skill for those who want to be successful and get a bright future. Moreover, the teacher can be admitted as a parent that students can talk and share with their problems they have got at school or at home. When the students get problem with the subject, for example they get difficulty in understanding and having a bad score in a test; they can come to teacher and ask him/her to give more detail explanation for the subject so that they can understand more clearly before asking him/her to give remedial test. It is same as the students get personal problems and feel so reluctant to share with their parents, they can come to the teacher to share with because he/she can be a good listener and give some opinions, suggestions or solutions in handling their problems. By realizing the points above, I would like to share the three matters which can be background to choose teacher profession.
First of all, I believe that being a teacher is my ambition since I was at third grade at elementary school. Let me tell you more about this. This story begins when I was studying math at the class and my teacher asked every pupil, including me to do recitation for multiplication in front of the class. There was two friends of mine could not do the task so that my teacher punished them by hitting them with a rattan. At that time, I realized something that my friends did not need to get that punishment if they had somebody who was so patient to teach them at home and at school. It is still fresh in my mind seeing that my two friends were crying in the classroom after the school was over. I decided to come near them and tell them if they did not mind I would like to help them in studying Math. It was surprising for me when they agreed to take me as their private teacher. There was a something surprised me a lot when I taught them at the first time, I realized that they could write so neatly but they could not understand what they wrote. And I taught them and to be their private teacher until we passed the grade because when I was at fourth grade, my two friends moved to another school.
Next, I believe that being a teacher means I can be an inspiration for others. Why I say that? I am strongly sure that a teacher is a person who gives strong influence to his/her students to decide what kind of future life that they would like spend. During I do my profession as teacher, I have got many students in good career after they finished studying at school. Most of them tell me that they can be successful because of their teachers. They say that the teachers help them to recognize their interest, talent, skill or competence they have got when they are so confused to decide what they want to be; and then the teacher will give some opinions and suggestion about some jobs which are suitable for them. In addition, when the teacher is teaching at class, whatever he/she says and does can motivate the students to be more serious to study more because they realize the things they learn from the teacher can be useful for their life. I also realize something when the teacher not only teaches the content of the subject itself but also describes the good values by drawing a line between the importance of the subject and its implication in life; I am really sure that the students can get meaningful learning and be more sensitive to their surrounding. I still remember my experience at senior high school. At that time, I thought English subject was very difficult and I never got satisfying score though I have learnt it since junior high school. I changed my mind about English when I met my English teacher at second grade of senior high school. The way of her teaching was interesting and challenging so that the class she taught turned into lively class because every student was encouraged to be active. I think she is the person who inspires me to decide my ambition being an English teacher. That is why I want to inspiration for my students as my English teacher did to me.
Finally, I believe doing the teacher profession means I can get double rewards. The rewards come from the human beings and Allah. In my opinion, many people still respect teachers because they think the teachers are the backbone to build this country because teachers have an important role to create next generation to run this country in the future. And I think Allah prefers people who dedicate their life in education field. Allah prized the teacher with good life in the world and in the here after life or ‘akhirat’ as long as the teacher is sincere or ‘ikhlas’ to do his/her profession. In addition, I always feel that Allah always place me in moderate circumstance because I can support my family though my salary is not big as the people who works in the office or bank.
In conclusion, I am fully aware that I choose to be a teacher because I can be useful person and make my life more meaningful when I can do many good deeds with the purpose not only for my own goodness but also for others’ goodness.

CALL assessment

CALL Program Assessment

 

According to Hartoyo (2006, pp. 90-91), we can understand that a call program is good if it can fulfill 5 principles as follows:
1. Interactivity(feedback and instruction)
2. Usability(flexibility)
3. Content appropriateness
4. Effectiveness
5. Performance
Here we have 4 CDs that we would like to asses based on the principles above. By doing the assessment, we can find the strengths and the weaknesses for each CD. The CDs are Issue in English, Speak English, Easy to sing and Learn English.

1. ISSUE IN ENGLISH
This CD presents seven topics, four levels and teaching points. Each topic is spoken in four different levels. Each level shows the degree of difficulty of the content it self and the activities dealing with the topic. The teaching points is very helpful for a teacher to choose which topic is relevant for his / her students to follow and which level is suitable for them so that they can gain good knowledge and significant improvement for their skills.
The topics we find in this CD are animal right, discrimination, euthanasia, the environment, gambling, growing old, smoking and public transport. By taking a look the topics, we can decide that all can be given to SMA students and some are suitable for SMP students, such as animal right, the environment, smoking and public transport.
The levels, starting from 1 to 4 are suitable for SMA students to improve their knowledge and their English Skill, and only the level 1 and 2 are suitable for SMP students.
The teaching points in this CD concern about dealing with the issue, getting started, listening, vocabulary, grammar, speaking, writing and A – Z.
After we play and study with the CD, we can asses it based on the five principles as follows:

  • Interactivity

The program can stimulate interaction between the user and the computer since it gives clear instruction and feedback directly. For example, doing listening exercise; here the user can do matching spoken and written language by clicking the right word from the box or matching picture and spoken sentence by clicking the picture on the screen. And the computer will give response for the user’s answer whether it is right or wrong.

  • Usability

The program is easy to use and interesting to learn. In addition, the user is free to study with this program, starting from choosing the topic, the level and the activities because he or she just clicks the icon on the screen and gets the things he or she wants to work on.

  • Content appropriateness

Mostly, the topics which are presented in this program are suitable for SMA students and the activities which follow each topic are useful to improve their skills (e.g. listening, speaking and writing skill) and to upgrade their mastery in vocabulary and grammar.

  • Effectiveness

This program is effective to assist the user or the student to learn language. Every level provides some various activities starting from the easy one to complex one, for example, doing with grammar in level 1; here the program presents three kinds of verbs (e.g. simple present, simple past and simple present continuous) and personal pronouns (e.g. I, you, her or mine) where the user is asked to type a right verb form or proper personal pronoun to complete a sentence.

  • Performance

This program has good performance which can attract either SMA students or SMP students to learn. It is displayed in interesting colours and pictures which describe the topics. For example, when we play the CD, it shows a menu such as the seven topic issues in callout shape, the four levels in list shape and teaching points in the corner.

2. SPEAK ENGLISH
This CD is a kind of interactive video CD-room and presents how to learn British English. It also provides student record, change help language, go on line and quit. There are nine general topics which are relevant for students of SD and SMP, such as the alphabet, greeting, shopping, getting around, at the hotel, on the phone, emergencies, leisure and business.
Each presenting topic is equipped by practice, recording and quiz. In practice, the user or the student can hear spoken word or sentence and see the pictures which represent the word or the sentence. In recording, the user gets opportunity to listen the word or the sentence before he or she record his pronunciation and playback his or her recording. In quiz, the user gets chances to test his or her mastery for certain words, phrases or dialogues. The quiz it self is divided into three different activity, namely answering the question by clicking the word, the phrase and the dialogue or the picture, giving response for the given question by using microphone and recording voice. After finishing the quiz, the user will get score which is noted in student record.
After we play and study with the CD, we can asses it based on the five principles as follows:

  • Interactivity

The program can stimulate interaction between the user and the computer since it gives clear instruction and feedback directly. For example, doing quiz; here the user can choose the best option from the offering options to answer the question by clicking. And the computer will give response for the user’s answer whether it is right or wrong.

  • Usability

The program is easy to use and interesting. The user only clicks the topic from the list and joins the activities starting from the practice, recording and quiz.

  • Content appropriateness

The topics which are presented in this program are suitable for SMP and SD students and the activities which follow each topic are helpful to improve their speaking skill and their mastery in vocabulary.

  • Effectiveness

This program is effective to assist the user or the student to learn vocabulary in word, phrase and sentence because it can record his or her own voice and gives feedback directly whether his or pronunciation is excellent or poor.

  • Performance

This program has good performance which can attract SMP and SD students to learn because it shows many good pictures and interesting colours. For example, when we open the CD, it shows a menu such as the nine topic issues in left side and student record, change help language and quit in the right side.

3. EASY TO SING
This CD presents twenty five children songs. When we open and play it, we can enjoy with the video clip and read the lyrics of each song. The duration for each song is less than 5 minutes.
Honestly, this CD can not be assumed as CALL program though it is very useful to attract the children to learn English and to build image that learning English is easy and fun. Taking a look the points above, so it can not be assessed by using the five principles.

4. LEARN ENGLISH
This CD is a kind of interactive video CD-room and presents how to learn American English. It also provides students records, license, information and read me. There are nine general topics which are relevant for students of SD and SMP, such as numbers, body, phrases, colors, food, first words, countries, shopping and time.
Each presenting topic is equipped by word practice, speaking practice, easy game and hard game and quiz. In word practice, the user can watch two speakers talking in turn. As one speaker says about a word or a phrase, the written word or phrase and also the picture emerges on the screen. In speaking practice, the user can practice his / her pronunciation by recording his or her voice after listening section. After recording his or her voice, the user can play back to compare the record and the speakers. In Easy game, the speaker dictates four words or four phrases which are equipped by pictures, and then he or she says one word or phrase while the user will click the correct picture or suitable word and phrase. In hard game, the speaker once says a word or a phrase and the user clicks the word, the picture or the phrase based on what he or she understands. In quiz, the user is invited to play and test his or her mastery for all the topics. The quiz is divided into two categories, e.g. easy game and hard game. In addition, after the user finishes with the game and the quiz, he or she can get score which is noted in students’ records.
After we play and study with the CD, we can asses it based on the five principles as follows:

  • Interactivity

The program can stimulate interaction between the user and the computer since it gives clear instruction and feedback directly. For example, in learning numbers; when the user clicks the hard game, the program gives response for every answer whether is correct or not.

  • Usability

The program is easy to use and interesting to learn. The user only clicks the topic and joins word practice, the speaking practice, easy game, hard game and quiz.

  • Content appropriateness

The topics which are presented in this program are suitable for SMP and SD students and the activities which follow each topic are helpful to improve their speaking skill and their mastery in vocabulary.

  • Effectiveness

This program is effective to assist the user or the student to learn vocabulary in word, phrase and sentence because it can record his or her own voice and gives feedback directly whether his or pronunciation is excellent or poor.

  • Performance

This program has very good performance from the presentation, lay out, colour and illustration.Based on the assessment of the four CDs above, we can draw the strengths and the weaknesses as follows:

1. Issue in English
The strengths:

a. The topics are very challenging for the students to learn and discuss, especially for SMA students.
b. The activities can be very helpful for the students to improve their four skills such as listening, speaking, and writing. And it is also very useful to improve their mastery in vocabulary and grammar.
c. The teaching points are very useful and helpful for the teachers who want to conduct teaching language by using CALL program.
d. The structure of the content fits with the level of the students’ background knowledge.

The weaknesses:
* There is no student’s record.
* The size of video is small.

2. Speak English

The strengths:

a. The topics are suitable for SD and SMP students
b. It focuses on speaking and listening skills.
c. It helps students to understand the words or the phrases easily because it provides pictures which describe the words or the phrases.

The weaknesses:

* The activities are not challenging as the activities the user meets in “Learn English” CD
* The performance of this CD is not interesting as “Learn English” CD
* There is no teaching point.

3. Easy to sing

The weaknesses:

* It can not be recognized as CD of CALL program because it is a kind of a media for attracting children to learn English in fun and easy way. However this CD still has a minus, that is the video clip can not represent the lyric of the song.

4. Learn English

a. The topics are suitable for SD and SMP students
b. It focuses on speaking and listening skills.
c. The activities which aim to develop speaking skill are interesting and challenging.
d. It helps students to understand the words or the phrases more easily because it provides pictures which best describe the words or the phrases.
e. This CD is better and more interesting than “Speak English” in presenting the materials, activities and performance.

The weaknesses:

There is no teaching point.

MID TEST 4 ICT

APPLYING CALL IN TEACHING OF ENGLISH
AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Soleha

Introduction

As we know English is one of the most important languages that everyone should master to face global challenge so that it is admitted as compulsory subject at school in many countries. This trend also applies in Indonesia. At many schools starting from junior high school to senior high school, English must be learnt because it is considered to be useful tool to access the world knowledge. However, though the importance of English has been recognized, how to make students easier to learn English is still questioned.
In this paper, we would like to introduce applying CALL in teaching of English as foreign language. And we also describe its advantages and disadvantages so that the teachers can understand CALL its self and assist or facilitate the students to get benefit by learning English through CALL.

CALL in teaching of English as foreign language

First of all, before we talk about CALL in teaching of English as foreign language and its applying, we should really know what CALL is. Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element (www.wikipedia.org). From the definition above, it can be understood that CALL is something in which both teachers and students deal with computer programs. The programs enable to present a stimulus to which the students must respond. The stimulus may be presented in any combination of text, still images, sound, and motion video. Every student can give responses by typing at the keyboard, pointing and clicking with the mouse, or speaking into a microphone; then, computer offers feedback, indicating whether the student’s response is right or wrong and, it is capable to analyze the student’s response and to pinpoint errors so that the teacher can recognize what kind of helps the students need and give remedial activities by using another CALL programs.
Secondly, regarding English as foreign language and how to teach it through CALL, it really needs to consider some categories of CALL which create interaction or relationship between the computer and the student. Wyatt (1984) distinguishes three such main categories, such as instructional, collaborative, or facilitative programs. In instructional programs, the learners are responders rather than initiators. The computer instructs the learners who, by following predetermined learning paths, learn from the computer in compliance with the high- or low- level learning objectives set by the programmer (or the teacher). In collaborative programs, on the other hand, the learners are primarily initiators and take more responsibility for the learning. Such programs typically include elements of discovery learning, making the learners learn with the computer rather than from it. The learning objectives of these programs are mostly specified in high-level terms. In facilitative programs, finally, the learners are entirely responsible for their learning and use the computer mainly as a working tool. Learning objectives are by definition not specified or embodied in programs of this kind (Wyatt 1984, 1987).
Considering about teaching English as a foreign language, the skills that students must have consist of four skills, such as speaking, listening, reading and writing. When the teacher decides to use CALL or not in teaching English, it can be seen that the impact of teaching itself for the students. As we know most of teachers would like to use the textbooks which cover four skills, but, at the end of each semester, students are assessed based on a written test of reading and writing skills only. As a result, many students and even teachers are ‘examination-oriented’. They spend time developing reading and writing skills while ignoring listening and speaking skills. And when the teacher would like to use CALL programs, he will serve or facilitate the students with the programs dealing with specific skill in order to reach its objective. In addition, CALL programs also supply the aspects of language it self, such as grammar and vocabulary. That is why applying CALL in teaching English makes students more focus to understand and get more significant improvement because CALL programs are designed to fulfill the learning objective dealing with the skills or the aspect of language.
Here are the examples of teaching by using CALL;
1. In teaching speaking, CALL programs can accommodate the condition or the atmosphere in which the students are stimulated to interact. It creates situations that stimulate interest, allows dialogue and communication, enhances reactivity, fosters a sense of personal worth, facilitates collaboration among students working together, permits rich learning experiences for all students and strengthens communication skills (Borras1993; Pennington 1995, 1996; Cameron 1999; Hardisty et al. 1989; Inoue 1999; Kohn et al. 1997; Powell 1998).

2. In teaching vocabulary as one aspect from language by using CALL program can be performed by asking the students joining the program which is known as Rambler (or Words Words Words) (Palmberg & Palmqvist 1988). It is a vocabulary program based on the principle of learning by discovery. The learner starts by selecting one of the seven keywords included in the program and then tries to produce as many English words as possible using letters from the selected word. All accepted words will be displayed on the screen, whereas unaccepted words will be commented upon. While working with the program, the learner has plenty opportunity of trying out which letter combinations are in fact English words and which are not. Since he does not know the number of accepted words for each keyword, he will find it challenging and motivating to try out more and more possibilities. If stuck, he may decide to use the clues offered in the program. He may also consult the built-in dictionary at any time to check the meanings of the words that he has already found.
It seems obvious today that CALL programs with its software have potential as both a teaching and learning tool are widely written about in the educational literature. There are a variety of computer applications available including vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation tutors, spell checkers, electronic workbooks, writing and reading programs, as well as various authoring packages to allow instructors to create their own exercises to supplement existing language courses. In addition to the range of software available, CALL has also been shown to increase learner motivation (Blake, 1987). Chun and Brandl (1992) also propose that the interactive and multimedia capabilities of the computer make it an attractive teaching/learning tool. Computers can provide immediate feedback to students and students can work at an individualized pace. Software can be designed to include sound, graphics, video, and animation. Moreover, information is presented in a non-linear sequence enabling learners to select the exercises or concepts they wish to review.

Advantages of CALL in teaching foreign language
It offers several advantages both to the teacher and to the learner, as follows:

CALL offers not only current and authentic materials with a wide range of resources but also exercises which aim to reach the learning objective. The materials are gained from vast resources offered on numerous Websites such as http://www.geocities.com so that the teacher can integrate the into language lessons. A wide range of resources that the students can use such as online dictionaries, thesauri, machine translation software enables them to learn vocabulary while reading. In addition, quite a few authentic language journals such as The Modern Language Journal, The Internet TESL Journal etc. are available on the net and databases. The use of the Internet can remove the greatest obstacle in the access to the authentic written word, which is the price. Therefore, electronic newspapers are a great chance for educators and learners because they are easily accessible and almost free. Besides, learners can obtain lecture notes and prepare for lessons beforehand or review the lessons from anywhere at any time suitable for them. Furthermore, 24-hour access to authentic materials for study, interaction with peers or native language users, and opportunities for global understanding make CALL an enormous boon to EFL teaching strategies (Lee, K., 2000). And the exercises are tested by CALL is more useful for students than exercises from textbooks in general.

CALL is unlike the conventional textbook, the computer exercises complete control over the presentation of material both as far as order and pace are concerned. Depending on the objectives of the program in question, it is possible for the programmer to use selected details to add up to a whole, combining, if desired, graphic information with text. Colour variation and movement effects can be exploited for further emphasis of specific learning points and, if necessary, the program can also include a built-in time delay chosen by the learner or selected for him (either by the program itself according to his performance, or by the teacher) (cf. Cook 1985).

Advances in computer technology have created remarkable new ways to connect learners. Asynchronous and synchronous communication enable learners can communicate rapidly and inexpensively with other language learners or speakers of the target language around the world (Warschauer and Healy, 1998). From these kinds of communication, positive affective benefits for learners are reported in the foreign language classroom. In fact, the learners are given an opportunity to interact with others without interruptions, time pressure or social anxiety. Moreover, the use of technology redistributes teacher and classmate attentions so that less able students can become more active participants in class. The on-line environment also enhances communication between teachers and learners.

CALL is unlike any other teaching, the computer analyses what the learner does and, what is more important, is able to provide instant feedback and/ or take appropriate action. With the computer there is no need for the learner to look up answers at the back of a book or to wait for the teacher to check his answers (cf. Davies & Higgins 1985). Furthermore, the feedback from the computer is meaningful to the learner, it is personal and, especially in self-access learning situations, it is also private (cf. Curtin & Shinall 1987).

CALL is unlike the teacher who can normally spend only a few minutes with each learner during the lesson, the computer is at the learner’s disposal for the whole lesson (cf. Davies & Higgins 1985). In addition, it is patient and it is creative insofar as it can vary the exercises in a variety of ways and interact with each learner according to the responses it receives, i.e. provide individualized instruction (cf. Garrett 1987)

CALL with its novelty and (at least to some extent) the entertainment provided by the computer, can be exploited to motivate learners to learn what the teacher wants them to learn (cf. Curtin & Shinall 1987), and at the same time make them feel that their studies are meaningful, relevant, and rewarding (cf. Fox 1985). This is especially important in classroom situations where the language taught has the status of a foreign (as opposed to second) language (e.g. the English taught in Finnish schools) and where the individual interests of the learners, rather than communicative needs as such, often determine what they actually learn (cf. Palmberg 1988a)

CALL can improve reading, listening, speaking skills and grammar knowledge. Besides, learners can use audio- visual technologies to correct and/or enhance pronunciation of words in the target language. The use of technology in foreign language learning also appears to influence the development of communicative skills. In fact, computers can offer foreign language learners more than drills; “they can be a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world” (Oxford, 1990, p. 79). By involving in an email exchange with a native speaker, learners receive plenty of authentic target language input from their exchange partner while maintaining the unrehearsed communicative context.

Disadvantages of CALL in teaching foreign language

The computer should be viewed as an ordinary teaching aid that can be used in a variety of ways and for a variety of purposes, both in the classroom and on a self-access basis. In fact CALL is what Fox refers to as “methodologically neutral” (Fox 1985:96), and all methodological questions must therefore be addressed by the teacher, including the question as to whether to use the computer at all for the teaching point being covered.

The changes in pedagogy, teachers’ and learners’ roles have implied the difficulties of the network environment in EFL contexts. For instance, Conrad (1999) finds that first semester students in regular foreign language classes favored repetition and structured activities over more creative linguistic activities through the Internet. In most of EFL traditional classrooms, students are accustomed to the traditional language teaching style, which is dominated by a teacher- centered, book- centered and an emphasis on rote memory. Therefore, the application of new teaching methodologies that are learner- centered more requires the re-evaluation of the role of the FL teachers and learners in a CALL environment.

An important element for consideration that could present considerable difficulty if the program is to take place in a multimedia language lab is the physical layout. As Huang and Liu (2000) indicate, the multimedia language lab impacts communication between students and the teacher. It is physically larger than the traditional classroom, which also creates a larger psychological distance. An additional difficulty encountered in the multimedia language lab is rearranging seats for communicative activities which are easily accomplished in the traditional classroom (Huang & Liu, 2000).

After realizing the advantages and disadvantages of CALL in teaching, it can be concluded that applying CALL is far too beneficial to be ignored. There is no doubt that the computer network technology e.g. the Internet and the WWW offers teachers and learners vast amount of materials and communication possibilities to enhance their language teaching and learning. For the successful integration of the networked environment in language courses, both teachers and learners need to be prepared to adopt new roles and use the available technology in appropriate ways. Teachers should be prepared with professional skills which include pedagogical and technical skill because the more enthusiastic and more knowledgeable language teachers are, the more successfully they can implement Internet in the language classroom. Learners can only benefit from technology – based activities provided that these activities are relevant to their needs and interest. In short, the decision whether and how to use Web- based materials, must be based on a clear pedagogical rationale, while technological and developmental issues need to be carefully considered.

REFERENCES

1. Palmberg, Rolf (1989). Integrating CALL into Foreign- Language Teaching. http://www.eric.ed.gov/
2. Timothy J. O’Donnell (2006). Learning English as a Foreign Language in Korea:
Does CALL have a place?
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com
3. Bui Thi Minh Hong (2006). Teaching Speaking Skills at a Vietnamese University and Recommendations for Using CMC
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com
4. ICT4LT Module 2.1 CALL methodology: integrating CALL into study programs. http://www.ict4lt.org/
5. Meena Sighal. The Internet and Foreign Language Education: Benefits and Challenges.
http://www.gse.uci,edu/
6. Computer-assisted language learning http://www.wikipedia.org/
Cheng-Chieh Lai. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computer Network http://www.coputing.dcu.ie/

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